Recent Changes

Wednesday, March 18

  1. page Retroviruses in detail edited ... Integrase then attaches to the viral DNA provirus and to the host DNA, snipping the host DNA a…
    ...
    Integrase then attaches to the viral DNA provirus and to the host DNA, snipping the host DNA and inserting the provirus, aided by sections of viral DNA known as long terminal repeats (LTRs).
    The video illustrates the operation of the HIV retrovirus. All retroviruses operate in basically the same way.
    ...
    doing! The ralityreality is that
    Click here to continue.
    (view changes)

Saturday, January 14

  1. page home edited Biological Evolution Biological = to do [[include page="wikidia:close"]] {next.jpg}…

    Biological Evolution
    Biological = to do
    [[include page="wikidia:close"]] {next.jpg} {more.jpg} {back_grey.jpg} [[include page="wikidia:menuoptions"]] {RetroviralIntegration.jpg} Retrovirus invading a cell and integrating with its DNAERVs provide clear evidence that different kinds of living things
    Evolution = change
    Biological evolution is about living things changing.
    There
    are two partsrelated.
    ERV stands for Endogenous RetroVirus. Don't be put off by the technical-sounding vocabulary. The ideas behind it are simple
    to understand, and this wiki is aimed at explaining them.
    A retrovirus is a virus that infects
    the subjectcells of biological evolution,a creature. Once inside a cell, the whatretrovirus inserts a copy of itself into a cell's DNA.
    The cell's normal DNA reading facilities are 'fooled' into reading the copy
    and producing more retroviruses. Click on {more.jpg} for more details about the operation of retroviruses.
    The word 'endogenous' just means originating from within the body, rather than outside of the body.
    But how can a virus originate from inside the body? Surely, they originate from outside the body? They invade it, don't they? Click on {next.jpg} to find out
    how.
    (Note to contributors. The plan is to produce a resource explaining what ERVs are and how they provide evidence for common ancestry, presenting it in a manner that is as accessible as possible. I think this is best done in a top-down way, providing links so that people can drill down into any aspect of the topic for more and more detail. There is plenty of good material on the web, but it is not always pulled together, and is not always as accessible as it could be. If you think you can contribute this project, please click on the 'Join' link at the bottom of the page.)

    (view changes)

Tuesday, November 1

  1. page Endogenous retroviruses edited ... The same ERVs are often found in whole groups of species All members of groups of species can…
    ...
    The same ERVs are often found in whole groups of species
    All members of groups of species can have common ancestors
    ERVs are explained as copies of retroviral insertions into ancestral cells, cells whose DNA has been inherited, i.e. germ-line cells - eggs or sperm cells.
    (view changes)
  2. page Endogenous retroviruses edited ... The figure illustrates how a new life develops from a single cell, by cell division. The entir…
    ...
    The figure illustrates how a new life develops from a single cell, by cell division. The entire body is built in such a way.
    We now know that cell division involves the duplication of the cells' DNA, such that the DNA of the daughter cells is identical.
    ...
    new life? Let's see.How do we explain he features of ERVs?
    Retroviral Proviruses
    ERVs
    ...
    Structured for producing viruses
    Same structure, but with errors
    Copies of retroviral proviruses?ERVs derive from non-lethal retrovirus infections in ancestors
    Makes a cell produce viruses
    Does not make a cell produce viruses
    "Fits with them deriving from faulty retroviral infections
    Viral codon bias
    Viral codon bias
    "Fits with them deriving from faulty retroviral infections
    Inserted in the DNA by a retrovirus
    Not inserted by a retrovirus
    "
    Varied insertion
    ERVs are inherited.
    Insertion
    site varies from cell to cell
    Always found
    ...
    same site
    "
    in every cell
    Because they are the result of cell duplication

    Proviruses tend to target certain
    ERVs are found in every type of cell
    Because every type of cell is made by copying from the first cell
    Not every cell of that type is infected
    Each ERV is found in every cell of an organism
    Because every cell is made by copying from the first cell
    Provirus content varies from one insertion to another
    An ERV does not vary, going from cell to cell.
    ...
    Individuals have only few or no types of proviruses
    Individuals have hundreds of thousands of ERVs
    SoERVs are they inherited?inherited. Individuals have very many different ancestors
    Only some individuals are infected
    Often, the same ERVs can be found in every individual
    All members of a species have common ancestors
    Usually only present in one species
    The same ERVs are often found in whole groups of species
    All members of groups of species can have common ancestors
    (view changes)

Friday, October 21

  1. page ERVs - 'Watermarks of Evolution' in our DNA edited ... The word 'endogenous' just means originating from within the body, rather than outside of the …
    ...
    The word 'endogenous' just means originating from within the body, rather than outside of the body.
    But how can a virus originate from inside the body? Surely, they originate from outside the body? They invade it, don't they? Click on {next.jpg} to find out how.
    ...
    at the topbottom of the
    (view changes)

Wednesday, October 5

Tuesday, September 13

Monday, September 12

  1. page Endogenous retroviruses edited ... The figure illustrates how a new life develops from a single cell, by cell division. The entir…
    ...
    The figure illustrates how a new life develops from a single cell, by cell division. The entire body is built in such a way.
    We now know that cell division involves the duplication of the cells' DNA, such that the DNA of the daughter cells is identical.
    ...
    a minute… "ERVs are"Each ERV is found in
    Retroviral Proviruses
    ERVs
    ...
    "
    Proviruses target certain types of cells
    ...
    in every type of cell
    Not every cell of that type is infected
    ERVs areEach ERV is found in every cell of an organism
    Provirus content varies from one insertion to another
    DoesAn ERV does not varyvary, going from cell to cell.
    Cell division is accurate compared with reverse transcription
    Individuals have only few or no types of proviruses
    ...
    thousands of themERVs
    So are they inherited?
    Only some individuals are infected
    Often, the same ERVs can be found in every individual
    Usually only present in one species
    OftenThe same ERVs are often found in
    (view changes)

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